Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Symptoms and Treatment

type 1 and type 2 diabetes

 

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

The most common types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2 Diabetes and gestational diabetes. Diabetes is a disease in which the amount of sugar in your blood increases.

Glucose in the blood is the main source of energy that you get from your food. The hormone insulin, made by the pancreas gland (a type of digestive gland), transports glucose from food into the cells in your body, from which cells receive energy.

Sometimes your body cannot make enough insulin or use insulin properly, in which case glucose does not reach your cells and stays in your blood.

In the long run, too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although there is no cure for diabetes, you can stay healthy by controlling diabetes by taking appropriate steps.

Some people do not have extremely high levels of glucose in their blood but still have the possibility of diabetes.

Also Read : Type 2 diabetes: Symptoms and Causes 

What are the types of diabetes?

The most common types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2 Diabetes and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease with high levels of blood glucose (glucose). In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas loses its ability to make insulin as the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin.

Nobody knows why this happens, but scientists think it has nothing to do with genes

If you have type 1 diabetes, your body cannot make insulin. In this type of diabetes, your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.

Type 1 diabetes is commonly found in children and young adults, although it can occur at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to survive.

Without insulin, glucose cannot enter your cells and your blood sugar rises above normal. People with Type 1 Diabetes need to take insulin every day to survive.

Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes, of which most people have type 2 diabetes, but a significant minority have type 1 diabetes (5%).

Contrary to popular belief, type 1 diabetes is not a childhood disease. It happens in people of all ages, all castes. In fact, there are more adults than children who have type 1 diabetes, although it was previously known as Juvenile Diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes

In type 2 diabetes, your body cannot make enough insulin or use insulin properly. At any age of your life, even in childhood, you can have type 2 diabetes.

However, this type of diabetes often occurs in middle-aged and older people. Therefore it is called the most common type of diabetes.

This problem mainly affects children who are overweight or obese. Type 2 diabetes causes many serious illnesses. These include neuropathy, kidney problems, eye problems, etc.

So far, there is no cure for this disease. Type 2 diabetes can only be reduced by changing your lifestyle, exercising, and adopting a healthy diet.

This is a disease that, if not treated in time, can cause many health problems, so the symptoms of this disease must be identified and controlled in time.

Diabetes during pregnancy

Some women develop diabetes during pregnancy. In most circumstances it is cured after childbirth. However, if you have ever had diabetes during pregnancy, your chances of developing type 2 diabetes later in life may increase.

Sometimes diabetes during pregnancy is actually type 2 diabetes.

Other types of diabetes

Monogenic diabetes, which is a genetic form of diabetes, and diabetes related to cystic fibrosis, is an uncommon type of diabetes.

How common is diabetes?

Diabetes is currently affecting over 60 million Indians, more than 7.1% of the adult population. The average age of onset of the disease in people is 42 years. Every year around 1 million Indians die due to diabetes.

Which people are more likely to have type 2 diabetes?

If you are 45 or older, or someone in your family history has had diabetes, or you are overweight, then you are more likely to have type 2 diabetes.

Physically less active, race, and some health prospects such as high blood pressure also increase the chances of getting type 2 diabetes.

If you have pre-diabetes or you ever had diabetes during pregnancy, then you are more likely to get type 2 diabetes even in these circumstances.

What other health problems can occur in people with diabetes?

For a long time, high glucose in the blood can cause the following problems:

  • heart disease
  • heart attack
  • Kidney disease
  • Eye problems
  • Dental disease
  • Nerve damage
  • Foot problem
  • Symptoms and causes of diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Symptoms of diabetes include the following:

  • Increased thirst and frequent urination
  • Increased appetite
  • Exhaustion
  • Blurred vision
  • Numbness or tingling of hands or feet
  • Untreated Wounds
  • Weight loss without any reason

Type 1 diabetes symptoms

The following symptoms may be symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Or, can occur when blood sugar is high.

  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Feeling Hungry
  • Feeling tired all the time
  • Have blurred eyes
  • Feeling numbness or tingling in your feet
  • Lose weight without effort
  • Urination more often, especially at night

Sometimes the first signs of type 1 diabetes are signs of a life-threatening condition or, when blood sugar is too high, known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). Some of the symptoms of DKA include: –

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Bad breath
  • Dry Skin and Mouth
  • Vomiting or nausea
  • stomach pain
  • Feeling trouble or confused

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes start appearing within a few weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes start appearing slowly, it takes years and may be so low that you might not pay attention to them.

Sometimes some people with type 2 diabetes do not show any symptoms. Some people do not realize they have diabetes until they have health problems related to diabetes such as blurred vision and heart problems.

Type 2 diabetes symptoms

The symptoms of this type of disease develop slowly over time. Symptoms include:

  • Thirst and extreme hunger
  • Frequent urination problem
  • Lose weight
  • Blurry vision
  • Dry mouth
  • Feeling tired all the time
  • Lack of energy
  • Skin itch

What are the causes of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system (the system fighting infections in your body) attacks and destroys the insulin-making beta cells of the pancreas.

Scientists say that type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental elements such as viruses.

It is a condition that occurs when the immune system accidentally attacks, which destroys cells in the pancreas that make insulin, called beta cells.

The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be inherited from your parents. If you have a parent, brother, or sister with type 1 diabetes, you have a higher probability of developing type 1 diabetes than someone who is not related to such a condition

What are the causes of type 2 diabetes

It is the most common type of diabetes that has many causes, such as the person’s lifestyle and genes.

Overweight, obesity, and not being physically active

If you are not physically active or you are overweight, then you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Overweight prevents the formation of insulin and is common in people with type 2.

At which place in the body is the fat, it also makes a difference. Excess fat on the stomach is associated with inhibition of insulin formation, type 2 diabetes, heart and blood vessel disease.

Insulin resistance

 

type 1 and type 2 diabetes
type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat-containing cells are unable to make good use of insulin. As a result, your body needs more insulin to allow glucose to enter the cells.

The pancreas initially produces a greater amount of insulin to meet this growing need. Over time, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, leading to elevated glucose levels in the blood.

Gene and Family History

Like type 1 diabetes, having certain genes also increases the chances of developing type 2 diabetes. The disease lasts from one generation to the next in families.

A person’s body weight and fat can also increase due to genes, due to which the chances of developing type 2 diabetes increases.

Also Read : 8 early symptoms of diabetes-related problems

What causes diabetes during pregnancy?

Scientists believe that diabetes during pregnancy is caused by hormonal changes (genes and lifestyle factors) that occur during pregnancy in a woman.

Insulin resistance

Your body cannot use insulin due to the hormones released by the umbilical cord during pregnancy. Adequate insulin is produced in most pregnant women due to which insulin resistance is overcome but sometimes it does not happen.

When a woman’s pancreas does not make enough insulin during pregnancy, it causes diabetes.

Like type 2 diabetes, increased weight is also associated with diabetes during pregnancy. In women who are fat or overweight, the body may stop using insulin before becoming pregnant.

A lot of weight gain during pregnancy can also be a reason.

Gene and Family History

If someone in the family of a woman has diabetes, then the probability of developing diabetes during pregnancy increases.

From this it can be understood that the gene has an important contribution in diabetes during pregnancy.

What are the other causes of diabetes?

Gene changes, other diseases, worsening of the pancreas, and some medicines can also cause diabetes.

Gene changes:

Monogenic diabetes: This diabetes is caused by changes in only one gene. These changes usually happen from one generation to another, but sometimes it can happen by itself.

Due to these gene changes, the pancreas is unable to produce insulin, which causes diabetes. There are 2 most common types of monogenic diabetes. The first type is neonatal diabetes which occurs in the first 6 months of life.

The second type is maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), which is usually detected in adolescence, but is sometimes not identified until later in life.

Cystic fibrosis:

In this, some cells of the body produce thicker secretions than normal, due to which there are lesions in the pancreas. This causes the pancreas to produce insufficient insulin.

Hemochromatosis:

Due to this, your body accumulates a lot of iron. If left untreated, iron content can increase drastically and damage the pancreas and other organs.

Treatment of Type 1 diabetes

If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need insulin replacement via injection or pump to control your blood sugar levels, as your body no longer makes this hormone.

Eating a healthy diet and staying physically active can also help control your blood sugar levels and improve your health.

How to prevent type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented. However, through studies, researchers are working to identify potential ways to prevent or slow the disease.

What health problems can develop in people with type 1 diabetes?

If you have type 1 diabetes and you do not control it, the following problems may occur: –

  • heart disease
  • the strokes
  • Kidney disease
  • Eye problem
  • Dental disease
  • Nerve damage
  • Foot problem
  • depression
  • Sleep apnea

Type 2 diabetes treatment

The following methods of treating type 2 diabetes may be included, such as:

  • By consuming a nutritious and balanced diet
  • Exercise regularly
  • With diabetes medication or insulin therapy.
  • Regular blood sugar test

By adopting these things, you can help keep your blood sugar level normal and prevent complications.

Some measures to reduce the loss of type 2 diabetes

  • People who have type 2 diabetes problems should exercise daily, as it provides many benefits, including weight gain, control of blood sugar levels and other conditions.
  • Get at least 30 minutes of physical activity every day, it is very beneficial to do so.
  • Eat healthy foods, such as: A diet full of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is great for the body.
  • Do not consume processed and refined foods in large quantities.
  • Too much alcohol leads to weight gain and can increase blood pressure and triglyceride levels, limit alcohol consumption and avoid smoking.
  • Avoid consuming sweet foods and things that contain refined carbohydrates.
  • Vitamin D is very important in controlling blood sugar, so do not allow vitamin D deficiency in the body.

Type 2 diabetes can be treated with proper treatment, such as taking insulin, following a healthy diet, and exercising. People who take good care of their health and have a doctor checked regularly are always healthy. Therefore, if there is a problem, contact your doctor immediately and do the test.

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