Type-1 diabetes symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment
Type-1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes. It is a form of diabetes mellitus in which very little insulin is produced from the pancreas causing high blood sugar levels in the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps transport sugar or glucose to tissue cells. Here we discuss about symptoms, treatment and causes of type 1 Diabetes.
Juvenile diabetes can last for years or even a lifetime. Diet and exercise are important for such diabetes.
Type-1 Diabetes Symptoms and TreatmentType-1 diabetes accounts for an estimated 5 to 10 percent of all diabetes cases. It usually occurs in children and young adults and more than 1 million cases are reported every year in India.
Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children and young adults, although it can occur at any age. If your parents or siblings have this disease then your chances of getting diabetes are increased in this situation also.
How does type-1 diabetes affect the body?
Diabetes means not having the right amount of insulin in the body. In the case of type-1 diabetes without insulin, glucose does not enter the cells that are essential for energy, making you feel weak, hungry and thirsty. This can increase ketones in the blood and urine. Which indicates that the body is breaking down fat and protein to get energy. Sufficient insulin also causes the liver to pass more glucose. Over time, elevated levels of blood glucose can damage nerves and blood vessels.
What are the causes of type 1 diabetes
There is no information about the cause of type-1 diabetes. Below are some principles that have been put forward as to the reason for this:
Juvenile diabetes is a disease that has more than 50 genes. These can all be dominant, residual or anywhere in between, depending on the combination of Loci.
Environmental factors include dietary agents such as protein in gluten, time to lose weight, gut microbiota, and viral infections.
Chemicals and medicines –
Some chemicals and medicines destroy pancreatic cells that can cause insulin damage.
What are the risk factors for type-1 diabetes?
Family History –
Having a parent or sibling is at a slightly higher risk of developing type-1 diabetes.
The presence of some genes indicates a risk of developing type-1 diabetes.
Juvenile diabetes incidence increases when moving away from the equator.
Type-1 diabetes can appear at any age but it occurs in children between 4 and 7 years and in children aged 10 to 14 years.
What are the Symptoms of type-1 diabetes?
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are severe and usually begin to appear within a few days of the week. These symptoms are:
- Increased thirst and increased urine
- Increased appetite
- Blurred vision
- Weight loss without any reason
Sometimes the first symptoms of type 1 diabetes are diabetic ketoacidosis, which is a life-threatening condition. Following are some of the symptoms related to this-
- breath-like odor
- Dry or red skin
Nausea or vomiting
- stomach pain
- difficulty breathing
Having trouble concentrating or being confused
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious and dangerous condition. If you and your child have symptoms, contact a health specialist immediately, or go to the nearest hospital.
What are the causes of type 1 diabetes?
Experts believe that type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors such as viruses.
How is Type-1 Diabetes Recognized?
Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test – This test points to the average blood sugar level of the last two to three months and measures the percentage of blood sugar associated with oxygen carrying protein in the RBC. The higher the level of blood sugar, the higher the hemoglobin associated with sugar.
Random blood sugar test –
This test takes a blood sample at the same time, regardless of the last time you ate it. Random blood sugar levels of 200 mg / dL or more. It has symptoms like frequent urination and excessive thirst.
Fasting blood sugar test –
Fasting blood sugar, taken after being hungry overnight, is normal if it is below 100 mg / dL, but if it is 125 mg on two separate tests. This is the higher level if g / dl. If it is higher on two different tests, then you have diabetes.
Blood test –
Fasting blood sugar is tested for normal anti-body check in type-1 diabetes. These tests help differentiate between type-1 and type 2 diabetes if its prognosis is uncertain. The presence of ketones in the urine suggests type-1 diabetes rather than type 2.
How to prevent and control type-1 diabetes?
You can control diabetes by taking self-care and timely insulin and other medicines daily. Proper diet planning, physically active and timely blood glucose levels are some ways to keep yourself healthy. If you are planning to become pregnant with diabetes, try to bring blood glucose levels to normal before becoming pregnant
Immunosuppressive drugs – cyclosporine-
A have clearly inhibited the destruction of beta cells but this makes renal toxicity and other side effects inappropriate for long-term use.
According to research its risk of life decreases after breastfeeding and the risk of developing islet cell auto anti-body from the gluten-rich grains in the diet.
Type-1 Diabetes – Lifestyle Tips
- Take medicines and make healthy food and physical activity a part of daily routine.
- Wear a tag or bracelet that indicates you have diabetes and keep a glucagon kit near you in case of a low blood sugar emergency.
- Get vaccinated and take a flu shot every year.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends Hepatitis-B vaccination if not previously vaccinated against Hepatitis-B and you are an adult aged 1 or 5 years who have type-1 or type-2 diabetes. .
- Keep blood pressure and cholesterol under control.
- Quit smoking as it increases the risk of diabetes problems, including heart attack, stroke and nerve damage and kidney disease.
- If you cannot stop drinking, drink a small amount of alcohol.
Avoid stress because hormones produced in the body due to prolonged stress can prevent insulin from functioning properly.
What are the exercises for a person with type-1 diabetes?
Walking, cycling, swimming and other aerobic activities for 20 to 30 minutes, doing cardiovascular exercise 5 days a week can improve health.
Type-1 Diabetes And Pregnancy – Things To Know
- Pregnant women with type-1 diabetes need to control blood sugar levels.
- Elevated blood sugar levels can pose a risk of neural tube defects and congenital malformations of the baby’s heart.
- The risk of miscarriage and birth defects in pregnancy increases only when diabetes is not controlled.
- For the mother, type-1 diabetes increases the risk of diabetes ketoacidosis, diabetes eye problems (retinopathy), high blood pressure from pregnancy and preeclampsia.
Common problems related to type-1 diabetes
For a long time, high blood glucose can cause the following problems –
- heart disease
- heart attack
- Kidney disease
- Eye problems
- Dental disease
- Nerve damage
- Foot problem
- Breathlessness during sleep (sleep apnea)
If you have type 1 diabetes, you can reduce the health problems of diabetes by managing glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol in your blood and following a self-care plan.
How do health experts diagnose type 1 diabetes?
Generally, when a person shows obvious symptoms of type 1 diabetes, health experts use random plasma glucose tests to diagnose it. This test measures the level of glucose in your current blood. But health experts also use another blood test glycosylated hemoglobin to find out how long your blood has been in high levels of glucose.
Even though the test given here can confirm that you have diabetes, it cannot tell which type of diabetes you have. Its treatment depends on the type of diabetes, so it is very important to know whether you have type 1 diabetes or type 2.
Health experts can check for the presence of some auto-antibodies in your blood to find out if you have type 1 diabetes. These auto antibodies accidentally damage your healthy tissues and cells by damaging them. The presence of such auto-antibodies in blood is found only in type 1 diabetes.
Health experts can also check the presence of auto-antibodies in your family members, as type 1 diabetes can pass from one generation to the next. If a family member does not have symptoms of diabetes, but auto-antibodies are present, then these members are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes.
If your brothers, sisters, children and parents have any type 1 diabetes then you must have an auto antibody test. People aged 20 or younger, whose cousins, my siblings, aunt, nephew, niece, niece, grandparents and step-siblings, etc., also have type 1 diabetes Must be investigated
Do you have other treatment options for type 1 diabetes?
Artificial pancreas is a technique by which blood glucose levels can be controlled in patient. This technique measures the level of glucose in the blood throughout the day and provides insulin or a mixture of insulin and glucagon at the appropriate time, so the technique does not require glucose tests and taking insulin regularly.
Hybrid closed loop system:
Hybrid closed loop system, artificial pancreas technique One type of is, which measures the level of glucose in the blood every 5 minutes day and night and automatically provides the correct amount of insulin with the help of an insulin pump.
When you need a correction dose, you need to immediately adjust the amount of insulin on the pump by hand. You will need to check your blood several times a day with a glucose meter. You can also ask your health advisor about this technique.
The continuous glucose monitor sends information through a software program called algorithm control. Depending on your glucose level, the algorithm tells the insulin pump how much insulin to deliver. The software program can be installed on a pump or any other device such as a cellphone or computer.
Artificial pancreas technique can be used in people with type 1 diabetes as well as in people with type 2 and pregnancy diabetes.
Pancreatic islet transplantation is a type of experimental treatment. That can be used in the treatment of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. The islet cells of the pancreas produce insulin. But in type 1 diabetes these cells are unable to produce insulin as they are destroyed. By pancreatic transplantation, these destroyed cells are replaced with islet cells that make new and insulin.
In this process islet cells are taken from the pancreas of an organ donor and transplanted into a person with type 1 diabetes. Research is currently underway on pancreatic islet transplantation and this procedure is only available to those enrolled in the research.